Personal notes or thoughts about a specific passage or resource. Readers must have a Manifold account and be logged in to save their thoughts. Annotations can be private or public. Those that are public are available for additional commentary by other Manifold users.


Responses and reactions to public annotations or other comments. Whereas annotations have the option to be private, all comments are public.


Files larger than 200MB or those that have a resolution equal or greater than 300 dpi when the smallest dimension is no less than four inches are considered high-resolution materials.

Splash Bar

On the Manifold landing page, the main ribbon the spans the top of page.


Synonymous with additive. Iteration is the process of adding new content to a Manifold project, be it a single resource, a new text, or a combination of those that further establishes and matures the project. Iteration is not to be confused with versioning. Materials with minor adjustments can simply replace existing ones without loss of annotation and commenting fidelity. Materials with more significant updates should be added to the system as new texts or resources for their on distinct consideration: versioning by way of iteration.

Manifold Reader

The platform display where Texts are read and critically engaged with by way of private or public annotations, discussions revolving around public annotations, and through the sharing and networking of the scholarship at hand. The Reader has various customizations available, including contrast, text size, font choice, and margin control. Readers are also able to adjust how much community overlay is shown, with options to show all annotations and comments, only private annotations, or no annotations of any kind.


Projects are the core unit of Manifold. Each Manifold project can be composed of Texts and Resources. They are a project’s foundation.


Ancillary media that enhance Texts and can be either static or dynamic. Resources are placed onto Texts in the reader in a way analogous to the placing of a footnote: a marker is created at a specific location in the text that calls the reader’s attention to media that can be previewed in the margins. Manifold is designed to allow for as many different media types as possible, from figures, tables, audio, video, to presentations, downloadable apps, and network visualizations. For details about the different kinds file formats and preferred specifications for resources that are available to the system, please see the Resources section.


Static, prose-driven materials that have been processed into the Manifold Reader and which could be replicated exactly in print as they appear on the screen. Generally, though not necessarily, Texts can be thought of as author-original content: field notes; draft or sample chapters; blog posts; ruminations and explorations of topics related to the project; or final, copyedited manuscripts. Texts are expected to have any figures and tables that are crucial to the discussion embedded within them.

Version of Record (VOR)

Synonymous with “release version” and “published,” the VOR is the distilled expression of your scholarly work and which has undergone your publisher’s standard editorial and production processes. Resources can be applied to the VOR, but they are not an intrinsic element of it.